Definition of Management, Types, and Functions

Definition of Management


The definition of management is how a person can manage things or work done by individuals and groups. In general, management can be defined as the capacity a person has in managing something to achieve the expected targets or goals.

Management According to Experts

However, experts have their views regarding the notion of management.

Frederick Winslow Taylor

In his book entitled The Principles of Scientific Management, the Father of Scientific Management states that management is the art of knowing what you want to do and then seeing that it is done using the best and economical way.

Harold Koontz

Apart from being known as a consultant, business management professor, and American organization theorist, along with Heinz Weihrich, Harold Koontz wrote a book entitled Management: Study Guide.
In the book, Harold defines management as the art of getting things done with people in a formally organized group to achieve goals.

Ricky W. Griffin

Honored professor of Management at Mays Business School – Texas A&M University and owner of the Blocker Chair in Business title in his book Management 11th Edition argues that management is a process of planning, coordination, organization, and control of resources so that goals can be achieved effectively (according to plan ) and efficient (accurate and punctual).

Lawrence A. Appley

Known as an organizational theorist and management specialist in America, Lawrence A. Appley was awarded the Henry Laurence Gantt Medal in 1962. The author of the book Management in Action defines management as a skill that can arouse other people, individuals, and groups to do something.

George R. Terry

George R. Terry shares Ricky W. Griffin’s views. In his book Principles of Management, Terry stated that management is planning, organizing, implementing, and controlling by utilizing all available resources to achieve goals.

Management Functions

In Notes on the Theory of Organization, Luther Gulick, known as a scientist, professor, and public administration expert, created initials representing the seven functions of management, namely:

  • P (planning)
  • O (organizing)
  • S (staf)
  • D (directing)
  • Co (coordination)
  • R (reporting)
  • B (budgeting)

However, only five management functions are widely recognized, namely planning, organizing, placing, directing, and coordinating.

Planning

Planning is a future-oriented systematic, and rational way of determining the direction of a company or organization. Effective planning usually combines internal and external factors.
Internal factors can be interpreted as limited growth opportunities that require changes in work patterns, decentralization, diversification, and organizational structure. Meanwhile, external factors include a lack of material and capital resources, international political instability, trends in inflation and interest rates, government regulations, and technological advances.

Organizing

This function will determine the activities that need to be carried out to achieve the organization’s goals or company. The trick is to assign tasks to the right personnel, including delegating authority to carry out activities in a coordinated and integrated manner.

Staffing

As the name implies, this function aims to screen, recruit, train, develop, evaluate, and retain a workforce considered appropriate for a company at the managerial or non-managerial level. To get a crew that suits the company requires a deep understanding that apart from technical competence, operational competence, psychological and sociological structures are also important.

Redirects

Direction is closely related to leadership, supervision, motivation, and communication so that employees do work to achieve targets as efficiently as possible. Leadership involves instructions and guidance from superiors to subordinates regarding methods and procedures.

Supervision is essential to know the progress of a task or project and ensure that what is done by subordinates is by the instructions. For maximum employee performance, a boss must provide motivation supported by two-way communication. That way, both superiors and associates will get the information and feedback needed to progress a task or project.

Coordinating

This function consists of a series of activities, such as setting work performance standards, measuring work performance, and comparing these results with standards. If deviations occur, they will take corrective action with the aim of improving the situation.

Management Elements

The 5M element in management describes how managers acquire and distribute resources in a manufacturing environment to achieve business goals. The 5M is as follows.

Manpower

This element refers to human resources committed to implementing marketing tactics, both existing and new techniques. Without a workforce, work cannot go according to plan.

Materials

You could say materials are the supply chain needed to support management and marketing strategies in the present and the future. If the materials are not available, they will hamper the process of achieving the expected goals.

Machine

Although often referred to as a supporting element, machines have a very vital function. The reason is, without a device, it will disrupt the process of achieving goals. Machines are used to facilitate management in processing raw materials and creating quality products.

Minutes (Time)

Time is the most valuable asset, so it requires an overview of the management planning process. Time is as effective as possible, such as how long it will take a new product to be on the market and how responsive it is to competition.

Money (Finance)

It is undeniable that money is an essential element in management. Without money, production activities cannot run properly. Smooth finance will make it easier for management to design better plans to reach targets as quickly and efficiently as possible.

Management Style

From the understanding of management and the elements described above, it can conclude that management must be carried out as efficiently and effectively as possible. Effective means that the achievement results must be by the target while efficiently related to the funds and time needed while achieving goals.

To achieve this, a proper management style is required. The classes in question are as follows.

Visionary

Visionary managers are responsible for communicating goals and directing their employees to work hard to carry out the mission.

Usually, the visionary manager will let employees work according to their terms. With notes, these employees remain productive. The creative manager will only perform team checks to make sure employees don’t get off track.

A visionary manager must be assertive, fair, willing to listen to ideas put forward by employees, and willing to make changes if the concept is good for the company. To keep the vision running smoothly, visionary managers often provide employees with feedback and praise when employee performance matches or exceeds expectations.

Democratic

In this style, rules are everything. Managers will allow employees to participate in making decisions and reward diverse team ideas. A manager who applies a democratic style must understand that employees are the key to group success.

By giving employees confidence and the opportunity to have a voice, employees will feel highly valued and more responsible for their work. As a result, the relationship between managers and employees will be close.

This fosters a sense of trust between the two parties and makes it easier for managers to convince employees when deviations occur during the process of achieving goals.

Transformational

The transformational manager is an innovator. The reason is, they believe that change and growth are the best way to stay ahead. A transformational manager does not hesitate to encourage employees to cross their comfort zone and make employees realize that their abilities are more than they think so far.
Besides being very effective in motivating employees to raise self-standards and improve team performance, this method will make employees feel more valued and dedicated to their work.

Coach

The training manager has two main focuses, namely overseeing individual employee development and bringing the team together. A training manager has the responsibility to teach, develop, supervise and improve employee professionalism. Training managers do not mind failure as long as employees are willing to learn to improve.

Not infrequently, training managers encourage employees to take opportunities, such as promotions or development programs that aim to improve team performance and capabilities.

Management Types

Not only has several styles, but management also consists of various types. The most common types of control include the following.

Strategic Management

Strategic management is the science required to compile, implement, and evaluate decisions to be made. This executive function is responsible for running the company or organization’s goal-setting process, the development of plans and policies to allocate resources to realize the vision and goals.

Operations Management

This type of management focuses on producing goods and services and ensuring development and maintenance are practical and efficient.

Sales Management

Sales management is an integral part of the company’s business cycle. The sales manager has a big responsibility for leading, setting team goals, planning, controlling the sales process, and ensuring the vision gets done.

Marketing Management

Marketing management is a tool used by companies to analyze, plan, implement, and control programs that have been designed to get targeted profits.

Procurement Management

Procurement management is the process of managing the availability of goods and services from outside parties.

Supply Chain Management

This management is a series of coordination activities, scheduling, and controlling the procurement, inventory, production, and delivery of services or products to consumers.

Public Relations Management

This type of management has the function of conducting research, planning, implementing, and evaluating communication activities between the company and the public.

Financial Management and Accounting

Serves to manage processes and inform financial reports and activities related to accounting.

Human Resource Management

As the name implies, HR management is responsible for carrying out the recruitment process, training, and dealing with labour-related problems to prevent the company from achieving its goals.

Information Technology Management

Serves to manage a team with expertise in information technology according to the organization’s needs or company.

R&D Management

R&D (Research and Development) management is responsible for product creation, research, and development.

Risk Management

Risk management is an approach to managing uncertainty, identifying, assessing, and controlling opportunities with negative consequences.

Innovation Management

Innovation management focuses on the business process, product or service, strategy, research, and development of the company.

Facility Management

This type of management is a combination of several management functions that are integrated or devoted to coordinating the company, managing the company’s facilities and infrastructure.

This is the information regarding the notion of management, complete with functions, elements, styles, and types. Hopefully, this information will make it easier for you to understand management better.